Version Notes

Most chapters in this textbook match the organization of An Introduction to Geology (CC BY NC SA) with the exception of an added final chapter, chapter 17, which was adapted from parts of Chapter 22 of Physical Geology, 2nd edition (CC BY), and parts of Chapter 7 of OpenStax Astronomy, 2nd edition (CC BY).

Overall or Major Changes

  • Chapters and data: Updated charts and data to the most recently available.
  • Figure captions: Edited some existing figure captions for clarity.
  • Existing tables: Adapted some existing tables to enhance quality and clarity.
  • Embedded assessment questions: Updated embedded assessment questions to match the most recent data available.
  • In-copyright figures: Identified and replaced in-copyright figures with openly-licensed or original work. Obtained permission to release figures by Peter Davis in Chapter 6 Metamorphic Rocks under CC BY NC SA 4.0 license.
  • Glossary: Added/edited glossary terms and linked within chapter text: hydraulic, igneous, rivers, sedimentary, tectonic, vertebrate, solar system, revolve, asteroids, AU, comets, meteor, reduction, oxidation, differentiation, K (kelvin), solar nebula, moons, planetesimal, planet, dwarf planet, rotate, crater, mountain, astronomy, diameter, metal, atmosphere, electron, gamma ray, universe, exoplanetary, exoplanet, evaporate, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud, active margin, albedo, alluvium, alpine glacier, angular unconformity, dendritic drainage, epoch, fissile, groin, headwaters, landslide, Milankovitch Cycles, nonmetallic, oceanic crust, oxide,  positive feedback, rock cycle, sill, tsunami, water table.
  • Accessibility: Updates and expansion of alternative text (AltText) for figures are ongoing in the HTML/Pressbooks version of this book throughout its first year.

Specific Chapter-Level Changes

Chapters 1-3, 5-7, 9-16

  • Edits as described in Overall or Major Changes

Chapter 4: Igneous Processes and Volcanoes

Source: An Introduction to Geology (CC BY NC SA)

  • Removed some embedded videos and edited text accordingly: Alvin video Part 3; one out of two hotspot videos; and Japan’s Mount Ontake volcano erupted/eruption video
  • Removed text section describing carbonatites
  • Removed sections 4.3.2 Decompression Melting, 4.3.3 Flux Melting, 4.3.4 Heat-Induced Melting, and 4.4 Partial Melting and Crystallization
  • Removed Key concept “Explain partial melting and fractionation, and how they change magma compositions”

Chapter 8: Earth History

Source: An Introduction to Geology (CC BY NC SA)

  • Removed objectives “Explain the big-bang theory and origin of the elements” and “Explain the solar system’s origin and the consequences for Earth”
  • Removed sections 8.1 Origin of the Universe and 8.2 Origin of the Solar System: The Nebular Hypothesis

Chapter 17: Origin of the Universe and our Solar System

Sources: Section 22.1 of Chapter 22 from Physical Geology, 2nd edition and sections 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4 of Chapter 7 from OpenStax’ Astronomy, 2nd edition

  • Changed introduction section: adapted the Summary of Chapter 22 from Physical Geology
  • Removed “LINK TO LEARNING” sections from OpenStax
  • Removed  “Voyagers in Astronomy” from OpenStax section 7.1
  • Removed “Names in the Solar System” from OpenStax section 7.1
  • Removed “There’s No Place Like Home” from OpenStax section 7.2
  • Removed “Geological Activity” from OpenStax section 7.2
  • Added new Summary section adapted from (trimmed down for this book)
  • Inserted new text block from An Introduction to Geoloogy (specifically, from Section 8.2.1)
  • Imported and linked glossary terms from OpenStax throughout chapter
  • Removed Key Concepts: “Model the solar system with distances from everyday life to better comprehend distances in space,” “Explain how astronomers can tell whether a planetary surface is geologically young or old,” and “Describe the characteristics of planets that are used to create formation models of the solar system”
  • Added new Key Concepts: “Explain the formation of the universe and how we observe it” and “Understand the origin of our solar system”


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Introduction to Earth Science Copyright © 2023 by Laura Neser is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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