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Fundamentals of Business, 4th edition © 2023. Ron Poff.
with contributions from Howard Haines and John Andy Travers.
Previously adapted by Stephen J. Skripak.

Attribution for third-party materials can be found within each chapter and on the Acknowledgments page.

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Adaptation attribution:

This adapted edition is produced through the University Libraries’ Open Education Initiative ( This book updates the first, second, and third editions of Fundamentals of Business.

Version notes located in the back of the book describe specific changes and updates implemented in this version.

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Suggested citation: Ron Poff and Stephen J. Skripak (2023) Fundamentals of Business, 4th edition. Blacksburg, VA: Pamplin College of Business in association with Virginia Tech Publishing. CC BY NC-SA 3.0.

Publisher: This work is published by Pamplin College of Business in association with Virginia Tech Publishing

Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech
Pamplin Hall, RM 1030
880 West Campus Drive
Blackburg, VA 24061, USA

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Peer Review: This work benefited from peer review by a recent Virginia Tech alumna.

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Publication Cataloging Information
Poff, Ron and Skripak, Stephen J., adapted by
Fundamentals of Business, 4th edition / Ron Poff and Stephen J. Skripak
p. cm.
ISBN 978-1-949373-87-5 (ebook-Pressbooks)

1. Business. 2. Business – textbook
I. Title
HF1008 .S57 2023

Cover Art: Lukas via Pexels (Pexels license), Fauxels via Pexels (Pexels license), Alena Darmel via Pexels (Pexels license), Cedric Fauntleroy via Pexels (Pexels license), mscamilaalmeida via Pixabay (Pixabay license), and Wladyslaw via WikimediaCommons (CC BY 3.0).

Cover Design: Kindred Grey


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Fundamentals of Business, 4th edition Copyright © by Adapted by Ron Poff is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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