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Fundamentals of Business © 2020. Stephen Skripak and Ron Poff.

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Adaptation Attribution: This adapted edition is produced through the University Libraries’ Open Education Initiative ( This book updates the first and second editions of Fundamentals of Business. Selected text and figures used in chapters 1-15 and 17-18 were rearranged, deeply adapted, and updated from the Saylor Foundation. The Saylor Foundation has given permission to adapt and redistribute via a Creative Commons NonCommercial ShareAlike 3.0 license The Saylor Foundation previously adapted this work under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 license and without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. Version notes located in the back of the book describe changes and updates implemented in this version.

Third-party works: All third-party works within the book (images, illustrations, etc.) retain their original licenses. We have undertaken diligent effort to clearly identify and attribute works reproduced under an open license, works used under fair use, and those in the Public Domain. Links to external content such but not limited to videos are not covered by the overall license on this book.

All product names, trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. Company, product and service names used in this book are for identification purposes only. Use of these names, trademarks, and brands does not imply endorsement.

Suggested citation: Skripak, Stephen. (2020) Fundamentals of Business, 3rd edition. Blacksburg, VA: Pamplin College of Business in association with Virginia Tech Publishing. CC BY NC SA 3.0.

Publisher: This work is published by Pamplin College of Business in association with Virginia Tech Publishing

Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech
Pamplin Hall, RM 1030
880 West Campus Drive
Blackburg, VA 24061, USA

Virginia Tech Publishing
University Libraries at Virginia Tech
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Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Peer Review: This work benefited from peer review and contributions of faculty reviewers, two current undergraduate students, and one recent Pamplin College of Business graduate.

Accessibility Statement: Virginia Tech Publishing is committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML version of this book utilizes header structures and includes alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Publication Cataloging Information
Skripak, Stephen, J., adapted by
Fundamentals of Business, 3rd edition / Stephen J. Skripak ; with Ron Poff
p. cm.
ISBN 978-1-949373-34-9 (print black & white)
ISBN 978-1-949373-35-6 (print color)
ISBN 978-1-949373-88-2 (ebook-PDF)
ISBN 978-1-949373-87-5 (ebook-Pressbooks)

1. Business. 2. Business – textbook
I. Title
HF1008 .S57 2020

Cover Design: Lauren Holt, adapted from Trevor Finney


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Fundamentals of Business, 3rd edition Copyright © 2020 by Stephen J. Skripak and Ron Poff is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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